Vaccinarea ROR – la ce riscuri ne expunem copiii daca refuzam vaccinarea

Vaccinul ROR (rujeola – oreion- rubeola) este un trivaccin cu virus viu atenuat inclus in schema nationala de vaccinare. Prima doza se administreaza la 12-15 luni, urmand un rapel la 7 ani, iar eficacitatea vaccinarii este intre 84-100% la copii a caror sistem imun este compromis si intre 96-100% la cei imunocompetenti (conform Insitutului de boli infectioase Matei Bals).

Vom discuta in acest articol in special despre rujeola si complicatiile si riscurile la care ne supunem copiii in momentul in care refuzam vaccinarea.

CI-measlesRUJEOLA – boala infecto-contagioasa febrila, data de virusul rujeolic, din familia Paramyxoviridae, gen Morbilivirus.

Nu exista purtatori sanatosi. Contagiozitatea este de aproximativ 98%, iar receptivitatea este generala. Manifestarile clinice apar la aprox 90% din persoanele infectate.

Incubatia este de 10-14 zile, cu o medie de 11 zile, mai lunga la adult. Dupa contactul infectant, urmeaza o perioada prodromala de 3-4 zile, cu manifestari generale : febra, conjunctivita, congestie nazala, tuse seaca, hiperemie difuza a mucoasei bucale, picheteuri hemoragice pe palatul moale, leziuni proeminente albe in dreptul molarilor ce se transforma in ulceratii (semnul Koplik).

Semnul Koplik - depuneri albicioase pe mucoasa bucala, in dreptul molarilor

Semnul Koplik – depuneri albicioase pe mucoasa bucala, in dreptul molarilor

Perioada eruptiva- leziuni maculo-papulare roz-rosii, nepruriginoase. Debutul este, de regula, la nivelul fetei, si se generalizeaza in 3-4 zile. Leziunile initial izolate, conflueaza in placarde, devin pete pigmentare brun-galbui, urmand ca dupa aprox 7 zile sa se descuameze fin. Febra, astenia, anorexia pot sa insoteasca manifestarile tegumentare.

Perioada de convalescenta: dispare eruptia, scade febra, dar poate creste riscul complicatiilor suprainfectarii bacteriene.

 

RUJEOLA MODIFICATA – prezenta la persoanele partial imunizate. Este o forma usoara, modificata a rujeolei si poate aparea dupa vaccinare la copii, la 14-21 zile postvaccinare. Se manifesta prin febra, triplu catar (ocular, respirator, bucofaringian), cu semnul Kolplik prezent, dar leziunile cutanate sunt mult reduse in intensitate si nu conflueaza. 

Number of measles cases notified to the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health by age group and vaccination status, 1 February to 7 May 2003.

Number of measles cases notified to the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health by age group and vaccination status, 1 February to 7 May 2003.

La ce riscuri ne expunem copiii in momentul in care refuzam vaccinarea anti-rujeola?

Persoanele neimunizate pot face urmatoarele forme de boala:

RUJEOLA LA ADULTI determina forme clinice severe, cu pneumonie rujeoloasa, hepatita rujeolica, gastroenterite, complicatii otice, oculare si cutanate, complicatii nervoase (encefalita acuta autoimuna – letalitate 20-30%)

RUJEOLA LA GRAVIDE – risc crescut de avort spontan si nastere prematura. Dintre complicatiile de temut se numara PNEUMONIA PRIMARA RUJEOLOASA a gravidei, ce are aspect radiologic de infiltrat intersitial pulmonar.

Complicatiile infectiei cu virusul rujeolic sunt foarte frecvente la copii sub 2 ani, la rahitici, distrofici si imunocompromisi.

Copiii sub varsta de 2 ani NEIMUNIZATI care au facut boala pot dezvolta la cativa ani de la episodul de rujeola o boala neurologica cronic degenerativa, PESS panencefalita sclerozanta subacuta, letala in 3-36 luni.

Complicatiile respiratorii sunt frecvente si severe: laringite acute rujeoloase, bronsiolite capilare (catar sufocant), pneumonie interstitiala rujeolica, pneumonie cu celule gigante la imunocomprimati.

Complicatii digestive: hepatita acuta rujeoloasa, gastroenterite

Complicatiile rujeolei la cei nevaccinati vs cei vaccinati

Complicatiile rujeolei la cei nevaccinati vs cei vaccinati ROR

Complicatii nervoase: encefalita acuta autoimuna, panencefalita sclerozanta subacuta, meningita rujeolica.

 

RUJEOLA este inca una dintre bolile care produce un numar mare de decese anual la copii la nivel mondial.

Trebuie mentionat ca dupa vaccinul ROR nu s-a produs niciun deces din cauza rujeolei la cei vaccinati.

Complicatiile vaccinului ROR sunt:

  • febra tranzitorie ( 1 din 4 / 1 din 6 cazuri)
  • iritatia la locul injectarii ( 1 din 20 de cazuri)
  • exantem discret 7 zile post vaccinare
  • extrem de rar manifestari neurologie ( 1 caz la 3000)
  • atralgii tranzitorii, ce dispar dupa maxim 1 luna ( 1 din 4, mai ales femei tinere)
  • NICIUN DECES

Numarul cazurilor de rujeola este in continua crestere, din cauza refuzul parintilor de a-si vaccina copii. In Romania, numarul cazurilor de rujeola creste in fiecare an, in anul 2010 constatandu-se 193 cazuri noi de rujeola si un deces (cu 22% mai mutle cazuri decat in 2009).

Aversia fata de vaccinul ROR porneste de la studiul condus de doctorul Andrew Wakefield, si publicat in 2009 care arata o legatura intre vaccinarea ROR si autism. Studiul a fost dovedit ulterior ca fiind unul falsificat, iar doctorului Wakefield i s-a retras licenta si dreptul de practica si i s-au adus 14 capete de acuzatii printre care: fraudarea rezultatelor studiului, conflict de interese, sustragerea unor foloase materiale de pe urma falsificarii studiului. 

Totusi, conceptia ca vaccinul ROR este unul daunator a ramas pana astazi.

Sper ca prin acest articol sa ridic un semnal de alarma, si totodata informarea populatiei cu privire la riscurile refuzului vaccinarii. Vaccinarea nu protejeaza doar persoana vaccinata, ci intreaga comunitate situata la varste extreme sau cu imunitate compromisa, sau pe cei prea mici sa fie vaccinati.

 

 

15 Commentsto Vaccinarea ROR – la ce riscuri ne expunem copiii daca refuzam vaccinarea

  1. Ioan says:

    Pai aceste riscuri au o probabilitate infima in comparatie cu autismul si reactiile la vaccin. Mai multe morti au fost datorate vaccinului si mai putine din cauza lipsei. Ma mira ca la facultate tot vaccinurile vi le baga pe gat….tot cu Streinu Cercel faceti cursurile?…..
    Mai studiati si rezultatele celor care nun accepta vaccinuri…
    Statistica macar daca nu va pricepeti la studii de medicina…

    • Buna ziua domnule Ioan,
      Niciun copil nu a murit de la vaccinul ROR, nicaieri in lume. Iar studiul care leaga autismul de vaccinare a fost DEMONSTRAT ca fiind o mare minciuna. Va invit sa cititi despre vaccinul MMR (ROR in limba romana) urmatoarea bibliografie, care demonstreaza faptul ca ceea ce am scris eu in articol este adevarat.
      Statisticile nu se fac pe 12 persoane, asa cum a facut doctorul Wakefield in studiul publicat in Lancet care “arata” legatura intre autism si vaccinare. Sunt foarte bine documentata, atat pe partea de medicina, cat si pe statistici. Inainte de a scrie un articol citesc 2-3 saptamani despre subiect.

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    • Inca o data, va rog consultati tabelul in care arata complicatiile la vaccinul ROR si complicatiile rujeolei. Date statistice si incidenta.

      • Nicole says:

        Mai citeste… prin spitalele de copii, stai de vorba cu parintii care au nascut copiii perfecti si dupa vacccinuri s-au trezit in casa cu copiii legume, sau cum ar fi sa patesti chiar TU , ca mama, asa ceva?? Cauta pe youtube doctora din Ardeal care pe vremea lui Ceausescu amenda parintii pentru nevaccinare si…ce sa vezi, chiar copilul ei a devenit leguma dupa un vaccin la scoala!!! Cauta, documenteaza-te mai bine inainte sa sperii parintii care de atata “efect de turma” nici nu realizeaza ce e bine sau rau pentru copiii lor!

  2. Raluca Mihai says:

    Buna seara,

    Printre efectele adverse manifestate dupa vaccin ati pomenit si tulburari neuronale. Sunteti amabila sa detaliati un pic acest lucru. Mai precis, informatiile prezentate ar fi cu mult mai clare pentru parinti daca ati detalia efectele adverse. Inteleg ce se intampla daca nu vaccinez, dar daca vaccinez care sunt problemele care pot aparea?!. Multumesc!

  3. Alina Elena says:

    Felicitari pentru articol Alexandra, mi s-a parut foarte bun pentru reimprospatarea informatiilor. Cred ca ar fi util daca ai putea folosi un limbaj de interfata, deoarece majoritatea parintilor(din cate am inteles, articolul este adresat acestora) nu stiu ce inseamna incubatie, receptivitate, macule,encefalita etc.
    Domnule Ioan, indiferent de ce teorii ale conspiratiei credeti, timpul va poate dovedi ca un anumit tratament sau metoda de preventie functioneaza, iar in cazul vaccinurilor, avem parte de aceasta sustinere. Daca autismul este cauzat de vaccinuri, de ce nu fac toti copiii care primesc vaccin autism?De ce a existat autism si inaintea vaccinurilor?

  4. Anca says:

    Si atunci de ce unii copii vaccinati fac totusi boala respectiva? De exemplu sora mea a facut rujeola in copilarie vaccinata fiind. Iar altii nevaccinati nu patesc nimic, sau fac boala pur si simplu si se imunizeaza natural.

  5. nimeni says:

    Studiul din Danemarca: 1991 şi 1998 pe 537.303 copii. Nu s-a găsit nicio corelare legata de autism intre copiii vaccinaţi şi cei nevaccinaţi. Nu există nicio corelaţie între apariţia autismului şi vârsta administrării vaccinului.
    Sursa The New England Journal of Medicine: http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMoa021134

  6. Cristi says:

    Totusi, copiii cu predispozitie sa zic asa, pot dezvolta forme de autism in urma vaccinului ROR?

    • Buna ziua domnule Cristi,
      Vaccinarea ROR se face la un an. Primele semne de autism pot fi observate inca de la 8 luni. Autismul nu este o boala care apare la adulti sau adolescenti, copiii sunt diagnosticati la 2-3 ani pentru ca atunci se vad cel mai usor diferentele intre un copil fara si unul care sufera de o boala din spectrul autismului. Din pacate, copiii cu autism se nasc cu asta, si nu dezvolta pe parcurs, ci din contra, o data cu trecerea timpului pot sa recupereze (Sdr Asperger de exemplu, 20% din copii recupereaza atat de bine incat la varsta adulta nu mai indeplinesc criteriile pentru incadrarea in Asperger)

  7. Ela says:

    Ce parere aveti despre articolul acesta? http://viataverdeviu.ro/sentinta-data-italia-vaccinul-ror-cauzeaza-autism/
    Nu sunt nici pro, nici contra vaccinului, eu i l-am facut baietelului acum aproape 2 ani si multumesc lui Dumnezeu ca e bine. Insa, citind atatea despre acest vaccin ma tot gandesc ce voi face la urmatorul copil…
    Sper ca nu deranjez cu intrebarea mea.
    Multumesc

    • Puteti sa verificati in ce domeniu au studii cei care au postat articolul si care sunt sursele utilizate de ei. Eu nu imi pot da cu parerea despre utilizarea tabloidelor ca surse in scrierea unui articol medical

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